Iyyanki. V. Murali Krishna
M Tech(IIT-Madras) PhD (IISc-Bangalore) FIE, FIS, FAPASc, FICDM, MIEEE, FIGU
Dr. Raja Ramanna Distinguished Fellow, RCI/DRDO, Hyderabad.
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Mobile : +91-984 804 9624
phone : +91-40-6999 9109
E-Mail : Iyyanki@gmail.com
  : ivm@ieee.org
Web : www.icorg.org
 
 
» Expert Committee member
» Current Tasks
» Projects Carried
» Participation
» Graduate Education
» Publications
» Talks / Lectures Delivered
 
» Biograpy
 
» Technological Convergence
» Knowledge Management
» The Knowledge Economy
»
 
» Health Care
» Facilities Planning
» Conclusion
 
 
 
 
 
IYYANKI V MURALI KRISHNA
 
M Tech(IIT-Madras) PhD (IISc-Bangalore) FIE, FIS, FAPASc, FICDM, MIEEE, FIGU
 
 
Profile
Prof. Dr. Muralikrishna V Iyyanki, PhD  from the Premier Institute -Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, is  presently Dr Raja Ramanna Distinguished Fellow at the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO), India, and the National Coordinator for Geospatial Public Health, which is National Networking Government of India Project. He is Professor and Founder Head of the Centre for Spatial Information Technology (CSIT) at Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University (1990-2005), and Director of Research and Development Centre (2005-2008). He has served as a guest scientist at German Space Research Institute (DLR) and GKSS Research Centre. His present research focuses are on hyperspectral remote sensing image classification and geospatial public health management and geospatial technology applications
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CURRICULUM VITAE
 
Summary
Presently working as DR RAJA RAMANNA DISTINGUISHED FELLOW at DRDO/RCI- Defence Research and Development Organization / Research Centre Imarat, DRDO / RCI- Government of India, Hyderabad.
National Coordinator - Geospatial Public Health -a National Networking Government of India Project - 2015.
PhD from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and M Tech from IIT Madras.
Former Director of Research and Development Centre JNT University during 2005-2008.
Assistant Professor in Indian Institute of Technology - IIT - Madras -1976- 79.
Senior Scientist and Head of Marine Applications Division,–National Remote Sensing Agency, Indian Space Research Organization - Government of India during 1979-87.
Professor and Founder Head of Centre for Spatial Information Technology, CSIT at JNT University at Hyderabad. during 1990-2008
Consulting Professor at Administrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad since 2009
Guest Scientist at
 
DLR- German Space Research Institute, Oberpfaffenhofen,/ Munich
GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht, Germany
Adjunct Professor at Bharatidasan University-Tiruchi, Inida,
Adjunct Professor -Asian Institute of Technology , June 2009,
Visiting Professor at Jackson State University, Mississippi-USA July 2004
Professor of Excellence at Chiba University, Chiba, JAPAN-1999-2000
Summer School Faculty at University of Dundee, Scotland, UK.
Member of IEEE USA- for the last 24 years,
Fellow of Institute of Engineers
Fellow of Institute of Surveyors,
Fellow AP Academy of Sciences,
Fellow of International Congress for Disaster Management
Fellow Indian Geophysical Union
Fellow of Bhoovigyan Vikas Foundation
 
Lead Auditor Course– Quality Management Systems-IRCA Auditor Certification Scheme - Nigel Bauer,UK QMS Certification Based on ISO 9001:2000, January 2007
Lead Auditor Course EMS Advanced Environmental Management Systems (Quality Council of India )
EMS Certification Based on ISO 14001:2004, April 2008.
Course on Administrative law for senior level educational managers at ASCI – Hyderabad, May 2008
Attended NALSAR University course on Cyber Laws
 
Guided / Co-Guided 26 PhDs and 152 M Tech / MCA/ M Sc / MS in the area of Geospatial Technology and Management corresponding to the following faculties:
 
Faculty of Spatial Information Technology Faulty of Environmental Science and Technology
Faculties of ECE Faculty of Civil Engg & Water Resources
Faculty of Computer Science and Technology Faculty of Management Studies
Best Teacher Award from
Government of Andhra
Pradesh, India in September
2005
GIS Education and Out Reach
Award, - EMRI Emergency
Management Research Institute
2008
Bhoovikas Samman Award
from Bhoovikas Vigyan
Foundation, New Delhi, 2005
Principal Investigator & Project
Director – AP Cloud Seeding
Project 2006, 2007and 2008
Govt of AP
Engineer of Year 2008 Awardby
Institution of Engineers
 
Founder Editor in Chief of the following Journals/News letters
International Journal-Published by JNT University- Technology Spectrum 2007-2008
JNTU Forum for Science and Society - News Letter, 2006-2008
Geospatial Today Magazine 2002 - 2003
 
Expert Committee member / Consultant
All India Council for Technical Education Ministry of Human resources Development
University Grants Commission Technology Development Board of DST
Research Advisory Board-NIRD-GOI AP CPDCL, Forest Dept
E Cops /GPS Project of AP Police Department Survey Settlement and Land Records Dept, Govt of AP
Dept Promotional Boards – Expert Member ISRO, Department of Space, UGC, MHRD & ICAR Government of India Member Board of Studies –
UN center- UN CESSTAP,
BITS Ranchi,
Maulana Azad-Central Urdu University- Hyderabad
KL University, Vijayawada
Indira Gandhi Open university, New Delhi
-Member. NNRMS Technical Committee, MOEF, Govt of India.
-Member NRDMS, Department of Science and Technology-Govt of India.
Technical Evaluation Committee Member – World Bank Funded.
AP Cyclone Hazard mitigation project.
Administrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad - Consultant for
Open data - National Data Sharing Policy NDSAP- Govt of India
MOEF sponsored project on EIA Terms of Reference and Manual preparation 2009
Land Records Quality Check - Bhu Bharati ILIS project, Sponsored by Govt of AP- 2010
Hazardous Substances Management Division Organization of activities , MOEF, Govt of India,
Geospatial Technology application for assessing impact of climate change on agriculture
 
Initiated and implemented MOUs with i) Survey of India in 1992 ii) Chiba University -
Japan, 2000 iii) Jackson state University, Jackson –USA and iv) Electronics
Corporation of India, for advancement of research and education in the area of Disaster
Management, Spatial Information Technology and Weather informatics
Organized Workshops, Conferences and Conceived and implemented ICORG series – and Organized Six International Conferences during 1992, 94, 97, 2001, 2006 and 2008 and Several Workshops and Training programs., International Workshop on Weather Modification Technologies – Hyderabad in 2007 and 2008 and Chairman Organizing Committee - Health GIS 2009, July 2009 Geoinfomation Technology Association, Bangkok
Established / Developed -Centre for Spatial information Technology and Centre for Atmospheric Sciences and Weather Modification Technologies at JNT University
Designed and implemented Certificate and post graduate programs and / courses on
 
Satellite Meteorology and Weather informatics
Geo-Spatial Information Technology and Geoinformatics and Surveying
Technology.
Courses on Sustainable development , GIS for watershed management,
Spatial epidemiology, Climate modeling
Invited speaker at GISTDA, Govt of Thailand - Workshop on “Data democracy for
climate change studies” and Delivered a talk on Earth Observation Systems for climate
change studies
During 2010 -Convener of Interdisciplinary working Group Session on Remote sensing
of Atmosphere and Oceans and co convener of Session on Air Pollution during AOGS
2010 -Asia Oceania Geosciences Society [AOGS-Singapore] at Hyderabad.
During 2011- and 2012 Convener of Interdisciplinary working Group Session on
Remote sensing of Atmosphere and Oceans, and Convener of Hydrological Sciences
Session on Modelling River Systems and co convener of Session on Air Pollution
during in AOGS 2011 Taipei, Taiwan and AOGS 2012 at Singapore in 2012.
Delivered URISA Invited Talk on GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY at Melbourne in 2004,
Delivered Maturi Gopala Rao Invited Talk at Institution of Engineers on OPEN DATA
Todarmal Invited Lecture on Geospatial public health during INCA International
Congress. December 2014.
Delivered Invited talk on Smart Cities at Institution of Engineers 2015
 
Address:
Flat 201, Block 4,
SMR Acropolis Apartments, White field,
Kothaguda, Hyderabad  500082,
Phone / Fax  ® : +91-(040) - 2352 0000 /
6458 9624
Mobile : +91-984 804 9624
Email : iyyanki@gmail.com
  : ivm@ieee.org
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Current Tasks and R and D Projects 2014 on wards
Hyper Spectral Remote sensing data -Image classification 2014
Geospatial Public Health data and Management system 2014
Member of Governing Council, JNTU College of Engineering TEQIP, Pulivendula 2014
Member of JNTUA College of Engineering , Anantapur 2014
Member of Committee on Hud Hud Cyclone damage assessment, 2014, Department of Science and Technology (DST) Govt of India
Member of DST Geospatial Chair Progress Review Committee, 2014
Member of NNRMS -Sub Committee, Ministry of Environments and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi
 
Projects carried out up to 2013
DST National Data Sharing and Accessibility Policy -NDSAP 2013
Geospatial Analysis of impact of climate change on Agriculture in different agro-climatic
regions –Ministry of Environment and Forests project 2013
Karnataka Bhumi Land records Project Quality Evaluation 2011
ILIS - Bhu Bharati – Integrated land Information system – Quality Check - Digital ortho
photos, geodetic Control net work and land information system – Funded by Govt of AP
2010
EIA Terms of Reference / Manual Preparation Project for selected sectors (Buildings /
Construction/ Area Development and Townships) - Consultant to Administrative Staff
College of India (ASCI) Bellavista, Hyderabad for Ministry of Environment and Forests ,
Government of India sponsored Project 2010
Hazardous Substances management division, MOEF sponsored project Consultant to
ASCI, 2009
Weather Modification Experiments -Cloud Seeding Operations in 12 districts 2008- Govt
of AP-
Weather Modification Experiments -Cloud Seeding Operations in 12 districts 2007- Govt
of AP-
EIA – Hydro electric Power project – Jurala- APGENCO – 2007 –
Studies on Development of appropriate strategies for adaptation of climate changes for
sustainable rural development- Funded by National Council of Rural Institutions – MHRD,
New Delhi – 2007
Weather Modification Experiments -Cloud Seeding Operations in 10 districts 2006- Govt of
AP-
EIA /EMP - Environmental Impact Assessment /Environmental Management Plan studies
for Bhima Lift Irrigation Project - Funded by Environmental Protection Training and
Research Institute (EPTRI) & Irrigation and Command area development department,
Govt. of A.P.
An Integrated Approach involving Remote Sensing, GIS, Global Positioning Systems and
Ham Radio Communication for Disaster Management –TAPTEC Project - All India Council
for Technical Education, New Delhi.
Environmental Impact Assessment/Environmental Manage Plan (EIA/EMP) studies for
Yeleru Reservoir Project - Funded by Environmental Protection Training and Research
Institute (EPTRI) & Irrigation and Command area development department, Govt. of A.P.
Terrain Evaluation for HAM / Communications – AICTE 2003
District Performance Evaluation Using Geospatial Technology – Centre For Good
Governance, 2003 -
Urban Infrastructure Management – Centre For Good Governance, 2003
Catchment Area Treatment & Command Area Development – Bhima Project- Karnataka,
2005
Integrated Study for Sustainable Development of Kadaura Block, Jalaun District, U.P. –
NRSA
Environmental Impact Assessment of Indira Priyadarsini Jurala Project, Gadwal,
Mahaboobnagar District (A.P) - Funded by WALAMTARI -
Preparation of Cadastral correlated maps and Digitization of G-zone of Vasi-virar region
for Bombay Metropolitan. - Funded by NRSA.
Creation of digital cadastral database for part of Hyderabad city -Funded by Survey and
Land Records Department, Government of A.P.
Land use/Land cover Change Analysis with special reference to Jhum Cultivation, West
Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya.- Funded by NRSA.
Land use/Land cover Mapping of Guntur, Krishna & West Godavari District of A.P. on
1:50,000 Scale. – Funded by Department of Agriculture, Govt. of A.P.
Land use/Land cover Assessment Study of Haripur – Jaipur – Pyala Section Gas Pipeline
Corridor. - Funded by NRSA
Soil Mapping for Reserved Forest Blocks, Vikarabad Range–AP Forest Dept
Remote Sensing and Image processing – Infrastructure Development – TAPTEC Project –
Funded by All India Council for Technical Education, New Delhi.
Integrated approach for Urban Ecology study of Hyderabad city and its environs for
developmental planning and Management - Funded by University Grants Commission,
New Delhi.
GIS application for environmental Impact Assessment of irrigation project – A Case study
of Nagarjuna Sagar Right bank canal command area - Funded by INCID, Ministry of Water
Resources, Govt. of India.
Preparation of Districtwise Land Resources Data Hand book of A.P.- Funded by
Department of Agriculture, Govt. of A.P.
GIS for Rural Land use planning – R & D Project – Funded by All India Council for
Technical Education, New Delhi.
EIA and Land use Evaluation for Soil and ground water contamination in Bichhri Village,
Udaipur, Rajasthan – A Remote Sensing and GIS based approach – Funded by NPC,
Ministry of Environment and forests, Govt of India
Integrated approach for land use emissions – Funded by United Nations Economic and
Social Commission for Asia and The Pacific (UN-ESCAP)
Preparation of Land Use/Land Cover map and Hydrogeomerphological map for part of
Visakhapatnam district in Sarada River basin – Funded by Environmental Protection
Training and Research Institute (EPTRI).
Optimal Land use planning of Nalgonda , Chittoor and Nellore districts of AP – Funded by
Dept of Agriculture , Govt of AP.
Environmental Impact Assessment /Environmental Management Plan (EIA/EMP) studies
for Veligondla Irrigation Project - Funded by Environmental Protection Training and
Research Institute (EPTRI) & Irrigation and Command area development department,
Govt. of A.P.
Environmental Impact Assessment /Environmental Management Plan (EIA/EMP) studies
for Sri Ram Sagar Flood flow Canal Project - Funded by Environmental Protection
Training and Research Institute (EPTRI) & Irrigation and Command area development
department, Govt. of A.P.
Rational Land use planning for Warangal, Medak, Srikakulam and Cuddapah districts of
AP – Funded by Dept of Agriculture, Govt. of AP
Littoral processes monitoring with Ministry of Shipping and Transport and Port-Trust of
Madras, Vizag and Paradip. 1981
Ocean color and Fishing potential evaluation with Central Marine Fisheries research
Institute, Kerala. 1982
Brackish water area estimation , AP Shore area Development Authority, 1985
Estimation of coastal erosion and accretion for Shore Area Development Authority, Govt.
of A.P. 1986
Indo-FRG project on "Microwave Remote Sensing" Collaboration with IIT, Madras, ONGC,
Bombay and ZSI 1985
PAVAN-TERRA-Indo- Russian Manned Space Experiment data evaluation. 1984
Formulated several proposals for State Remote Sensing Centres Establishment and
Infrastructure development. 1985
Geographical Information for Rural Land Use and Environmental Management-
MHRD 1992
European Remote Sensing Satellite-Utilization of Synthetic Aperture Radar data. 1992
Marine Bio-Optical Modelling-1992 , Department of Ocean development
Terrain evaluation-MHRD 1992 , Govt of India
Cadastral land Records Management and GIS development for Municipal application,
NRSA, Hyderabad 1994
GIS for Urban environmental management, UGC 1996
Mangrove ecosystems - Ministry of Environment, 1996
Water Resources Assessment and performance evaluation of Nagarjuna Sagar Left Bank
canal,1996, INCID
 
Participation in International Programs
Invited Speaker -Free Open Source Software for Geoinformatics FOSS4G-AIT Bangkok,
December 2014
Chairman, ISPRS VIII/2 Session on Health, ISPRS Mid Term Symposium, Hyderabad,
India, December 2014
Invited Speaker - Mountain Moon University, Kampala, Uganda Africa - June 2013
Health GIS - Bangkok 2013, Thailand
Digital Earth conference 2013, Malaysia
Digital Research Workshop - Oxford University - September 2012
AOGS – Taiwan –Taipei –August 2011 and Singapore in 2012
Geospatial information for disaster management - Colombo Nov 2012
Geospatial world Forum –Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction- Januaray
2011
E India -2010 – Delivered a talk on Disease mapping –August 2010
Climate Change workshop – GISTDA and Asian Institute of Technology- Bangkok-2010
Invited speaker at Asia Oceania Geo-science Society [ AOGS] Conference at Singapore,
August 2009 and 2010
International Geographical Union – IGU- Urban Geography Commission, Invited Speaker,
August 2009
International conference on Eco Industrial parks organized by GTZ German Institute for
Technical Cooperation, July 2009
Resource person – Geoinformatics for Coastal Zone management, 3 week program
organized at AIT, Bangkok December 2010
GNSS Workshop at AIT – March 2010
Developed course content for the 1 credit course on Climate Change at AIT – Bangkok
March 2010
Invited Speaker- International Conference on Disaster management, Bangkok, January
2009
Participated in CMAQ / WRF Weather Research and Forecasting Training program at
Jackson in USA –Program on Numerical modeling of Weather –organized by University of
North Carolina – September 2008
Organized 2 week training program on Cloud seeding for Weather Modification Officers,
Djakarta, Indonesia, December 2008
Conceived, planned and organized ICORG -International Space Year Conference on
Remote Sensing and GIS-Feb 1992, the first International Remote Sensing Conference in
India. This was followed with ICORG 94 ICORG 97 and ICORG in February 2001 and
2006, and 2008
International Workshop on Weather Modification Technologies – January 2007
Several short term programs on GPS, Climate change, Digital image processing 2002-08
International Evaluation Committee Meetings on Cloud seeding Project 2005 and 2006 -
March 2006 and January 2007.
Conducted Geographical Information Systems Tutorial Workshops in during 1992-96 GPS
and Object Oriented GIS Courses during 1997.
Principles of GIS and Web based GIS in 2000.and 2001.
Designed and conducted 5 Orientation and Refresher courses each of 4 week duration on
Spatial information Technology during 2001-2004 through JNTU Academic Staff College,
Hyderabad
Small world application for electric utilities mapping , Singapore,
EO education- Dehradun 2000
Marine GIS- Havana ,Cuba 2000
Coastal Zone management, Baltimore, USA, 2000
GIS education- Conference at ITC Netherlands
Global Alliance for HIV/AIDS –GHAA Inaugural convention –Convener, February 2006
Invited Speaker – IWMI – Colombo- February 2008
Invited speaker at International Conference on Health and Environmental Research –
Jackson, Mississippi, USA, September 2004, 2007, 2010
Weather Modification Association workshop at San Francisco, April 2007
Invited Speaker – AP ACADEMY of Sciences – Disaster Management , March 2006 and
2008
Invited speaker / Session chairman – Spatial Information Technology , MAP MIDDLE
EAST - Dubai April 2005
Invited Speaker – Global Spatial Data Infrastructure (GSDI) Conference February 2004
Invited Speaker – International Conference on Hazards mitigation and disaster
management- India Meteorological Society, February 2004
Invited Speaker Geospatial Education at Map India Conference – New Delhi, Jan 2004
Geo-information and Technology Conference, Tampa, Florida, USA, March 2002
Delivered Key Note address on GIS trends and issues during Australian Urban Regional
Information Systems Conference – AURISA – November 2001 , Australia
Geoinformation and Technology Association GITA Conference- San Diego-USA- March
2001
International Conference on Robust methods in GIS, Zurich, Switzerland, March, 2001
International IT conference on GIS education- Hong Kong, 2000
Disaster Management- International Network meet USA
CEOS Meeting at AIT, Bangkok, 2000
Workshop on Remote Sensing –National Academy of Sciences, Washington, USA 2000
GIS Conference, Towson University, Baltimore, USA 2000
Intl Symposium on Advanced Informatics, NACSIS, Tokyo, Japan-2000
 
GRADUATE EDUCATION
INSTITUTION YEAR DEGREE
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 1972 M. Tech (Master of Tech)
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 1977 Ph.D in Engineering Faculty
 
Lead Auditor Course– Quality Management Systems-IRCA Auditor Certification Scheme - Nigel Bauer, UK QMS Certification Based on ISO 9001:2000, January 2007
Lead Auditor Course EMS Advanced Environmental Management Systems (Quality Council of India )
EMS Certification Based on ISO 14001:2004, April 2008.
Course on Administrative law for senior level educational managers at ASCI –Hyderabad, May 2008
Attended NALSAR University course on Cyber Laws
 
EMPLOYMENT
Period Name of Institution Designation
August 1974 to February 1977 Indian Institute of science Bangalore CSIR-Research Fellow
February1977 IIT -Indian Institute of Technology. Madras Research Associate
February 1978 Ocean Engineering Centre. Indian Institute of Technology. Madras Lecturer [=Asst Prof]
March 1979 Dept of Space Govt of India NRSA – HYDERABAD and IIRS – Dehradun Scientist SF (1985-87) and Head, of the Division.
March 1990-92
1992-2008
JNT University, Hyderabad Associate Professor Professor in Spatial Information Technology
JNTU Director R and D and Director (IST) ( 3 years)– September 2005-October 2008
JNTU Professor and Head – Centre for Atmospheric Sciences and Weather Modification Technologies (3 years)
2008 Consultant, Administrative Staff college of India, Hyderabad
 
PRESENT POSITION
Raja Ramanna Distinguished Fellow DRDO, RCI, Government of India, Hyderabad.
 
Names for Reference
Dr Avinash Chander, Former Scientific Secretary to Defence Minsistry, Governmnet of India, DRDO Bhawan, New Delhi 110001, E-Mail:
 
Dr DN Reddy, Former Vice Chancellor, JNT University, Hyderabad, and Chairman,
AICTE Southern Regional Centre, Hyderabad, JNTU Masab
Tank Campus, Hyderabad 500028, E-Mail:
 
Dr Dadhwal V Director, ISRO Centre -NRSC, Government of India, Balanagar,
Hyderabad - 500037, AP, India Phone +91- (040) – 23879575, E-Mail:
 
Prof. Dr. Karl Harmsen, Director UNU-INRA, Private Mail Bag (PMB), Kotoka International Airport (KIA), Accra –Ghana, Ph +31623 634002, Fax: +233-21-500791
 
PUBLICATIONS
Author /Co Author of Books on
Climate change and Weather Modification Technologies 2008
Environmental management- Climate Change
 
Contributed Chapters in the following Publications:
Global Data Base Design- ISPRS Publication Edited by Ryutaro Tateishi, Chiba
University, Japan 2001
Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography and Hydrology 1984
Remote sensing applications in Marine Science and Technology 1986
 
[Both ii and iii Edited by AP Cracknell University of Dundee, Scotland and published by Taylor and Francis / European Space Agency.
 
PUBLICATIONS IN PEER REVIEWED JOURNALS
Muralikrishna IV and Ratna Devanathan - Circulation and salinity distribution in coastal inlets Coastal Engineering Journal, Elsevier Publishing House, November 1978, The Netherlands.
Muralikrishna IV and Sarma KVN Buoyant jet discharges into finite ambient waters-­- journal of Hydraulics division American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol.105, No.HY5, May 1979.
Muralikrishna IV Longitudinal dispersion in dead Zones discussion.Journal of hydraulics division, American Society of Civil Engineers, July 1978.
Muralikrishna IV and Raman H-­-Hydraulic modeling of stratified lakes. Journal of Hydraulics division, American Society of Civil Engineers, February 1978.
Muralikrishna I V - Horizontal buoyant jets in quiescent shallow water. Journal of Environ mental Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol.105.EE2,April 1979.
Murlalikrishna I V and Sarma K V N-A theoretical investigation of arrested salt wedge, West Indies Journal of Engineering, Vol.7,No.2.December1979.
Muralikrishna I V - Ocean color study in Arabian sea, Chapter 14 Remote Sensing applications in marine science and technology NATO ASI Series edited by AP Cracknel Reidel publishing Company. UK
Muralikrishna I V- Landsat applications to suspended sediment evaluation Chapter 15,-Remote Sensing applications in marine science and technology NATO ASI Series edited by AP Cracknel Reidel publishing Company. UK.
Muralikrishna I V - Optimal Remote Sensing of Coastal environment. Remote Sensing of Shelf sea Hydrodynamics, edited by JCJ Nihoul, Elsevier Publishers, Netherlands,
Muralikrishna I V - Remote Sensing applications in civil engineering published by European Space Agency (ESA), edited by Prof.AP Cracknell,1984.
Muralikrishna I V - Optical Remote Sensing Coastal zone management in civil engineering] published by European Space Agency (ESA), edited by Prof. AP Cracknell,1984.
Muralikrishna I V - Ocean color spectrum analysis and bio-optical modelling-Chapter14 Satellite Oceanography edited by AP Cracknell published by D Reidel Co;1992
N Jacob, R Krishnan, IV Muralikrishna - Fuzzy logic approach for sustainable land use planning - International Journal of Geoinformatics - Bangkok – 2005
IV Murali Krishna, Global Hydrological Data Base- Chapter in ISPRS WG publication on Global Database, edited by Ryutaro Tateishi, Japan
M. Seetha, IV Muralikrishna and BL Deekshatulu- Image fusion a performance assessment, Journal of Geomatics, April 2007
B Veeranna, IV Murali Krishna and EG Rajan, “Web GIS an application of agriculture information system at district level” Journal of Geomatics, October 2007
NS Rao, KH Rao, IV Ramana and IV Muralikrishna “ The 1999 Orissa super Cyclone induced surface chlorophyll-a enhancement with a post cyclone geostrophic eddy “ International Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, Journal Vol 2 , No.1 January 2008
NS Rao, Y Anjaneyulu KH Rao and IV Muralikrishna “ Cyclones enhance the uptake of CO2 in the Arabian Sea, Environmental Geochemistry” Vol 10, No.1 2007
Kiranmai C and Muralikrishna IV and Venugopala Reddy, “ Spatial Data Mining Application for Crime analysis ” Technology Spectrum Journal, Hyderabad2007
Nagratna Hegde, IV Murali Krishna and KV Chalapathi Rao “ Cellular automata for Land use Change dynamics , Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology – 2008
Padmaja V, Muralikrishna IV and EG Rajan ”Soft techniques for image classification” Geospatial Today, Vol 6, Issue 12 , February 2008
Padmaja V, Muralikrishna IV and Pardesi Rao Ch D V, “ A brief assessment of image classification techniques” International Journal of Scientific Computing, New Delhi, 2008
P Hari, Valli Manickam and IV Murali Krishna “ Rain water Chemical characteristics and statistical analysis” ICFAI Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2008, Vol.2, No.2, pp 63-70, May 2008
IV. Murali Krishna, Valli Manickam, P.Hariprasad, K.Keerti, T.Sunitha- Influence of cloud seeding on the chemistry of rain water in Telangana and Rayalaseema areas of AP " Journal of Environmental Geochemistry, 2008
A Santra and IV Murali Krishna, An approach for effective Testing of Multilingual GIS Portals” ICFAI Univ Journal of IT, Vol V, No2, 2009.
IV Murali Krishna, Valli Manickam, Sotlu Bharadwaj, Hariprasad P and AVS Prabhakara Rao “ Design and Analysis of Hygroscopic seeding operations in AP, India, Journal of Weather Modification, USA, April 2009
Sunitha Thota, Hariprasad,P, Keerthi,K, Valli Manickam and Murali Krishna I.V, Chemical characteristics of rainwater in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh India”, Disaster Advances, an International Journal in Natural Disasters, Man-Made Disasters, Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Sciences, Geo Sciences , Marine Sciences and Engineering., Vol.1 (4), pp 52-55, October 2008
M. Raja Sekar, P. Prem Chand and I.V. Muralikrishna “ Regions Classification Using Support Vector Machines” Journal of Geomatics, Vol 3, No.2, Oct 2009,
BL Malleswari, Dr. I.V. Murali Krishan, Dr. K. Lalkishore and M. Seetha. “Kalman filter for GPS data preprocessing”-International Journal of Geoinformatics, Thailand, March, 3rd volume, 2007, pp 11-18.
M. Seetha, B.L. Malleswari, Dr. B.L.Deekshithulu and Dr. I.V. Murali Krishna, “Image fusion – a performance assessment” Journal of Geomatics, Ahmadabad, April, 1st volume, 2007, pp 33-42.
M. Seetha, Dr. I.V. Murali Krishna, Dr. B.L. Deeshithalu, B.L.Malleswari and Nagaratna. P.Hegde, “Artificial neural networks and other methods of image classification”, JATIT, Pakistan Vol 5, November, 2008, pp 1039-10453
B.L. Malleswari, Dr.I.V. Murali Krishna, Dr. K. Lalkishore, M. Seetha and Nagaratna. P.Hedge, “The role of Kalman filter in the modeling of GPS errors”- JATIT International Journal, Pakistan, Vol 5, January, 2009, pp 95
Kesava Rao P, KMM Rao, Murali Krishna IV., “Effect of reference height points, their number and the source on InSAR DEMs, International Journal of Geoinformatics., Vol 6, No.4, December 2010
M. Raja Sekar, P. Prem Chand and I.V. Muralikrishna Spatial expression recognition from image sequences using SVM, Journal of Data Engineering and Computer Science, Vol 1, No.1, July 2009, pp 23-30
M. Raja Sekar , P. Prem Chand and I.V. Muralikrishna “Automatic vehicle identification Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering” Vol 3, No 2, pp 397-403, 2009
Muralikrishna G, Prasad S Thenkabali I. V. Muralikrishna, MN. Velpuri etc., “Changes in agricultural cropland areas between a water-surplus year and a water-deficit year impacting food security, determined using MODIS 250 m time-series data and spectral matching techniques, in the Krishna river basin Taylor and Francis publication , Intl Journal of Remote Sensing p1-26, 2010
I V. Murali Krishna and Valli Manickam “Impact of cloud seeding on rainwater composition in selected districts of Andhra Pradesh”, Environmental Pollution Control Journal Vol.12, No.2 pp 63-66, Jan 2009.
K.Keerti, P.Hariprasad, T.Sunitha, Valli Manickam, IV.Murali Krishna,” Analysis of Precipitation in Nalgonda Mandal of Andhra Pradesh, ICFAI University Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. III, No. 2, May 2009, 60
IV.Murali Krishna, Valli Manickam,-"Characterization By Statistical Analysis Of Chemical Facies Of Rainwater During Cloud Seeding Operation In Andhra Pradesh”, International Journal of Ecology and Development, Vol 18 No W 11 pp 19-28, 201
P.S.Suhasini ,K.Sri Rama Krishna and I.V.Murali Krishna ,Graph Based Segmentation in Content Based Image Retrieval,” Journal of computer science August 2008, Vol.6(1), pp. 699-705. (SCOPUS Indexed)
P.S.Suhasini ,K.Sri Rama Krishna and I.V.Murali Krishna , “CBIR using Color Histogram Processing,” Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, 2009, Vol.6(1), pp.116 -122. (SCOPUS Indexed)
P.S.Suhasini ,K.Sri Rama Krishna and I.V.Murali Krishna , “Content Based Image Retrieval based on different Global and Local Color Histogram methods: A Survey”. Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India): Series B (Springer Journal)
P.S.Suhasini ,K.Sri Rama Krishna and I.V.Murali Krishna , “CBIR using Fuzzy Color Histogram, SIFT and Gabor features”. Canadian Journal on Image Processing and Computer Vision - [Under Communication 2013]
Md Ateeq Ur Rahman and Shaik Rusthum, IV Muralikrishna “High Resolution Data Processing for Spatial Image Data Mining”, International Journal Of Geomatics And Geosciences, Vol 1, No 3, December 2010, pp. 327-342, ISSN 0976–4380.
Md Ateeq ur Rahman, Shaik Rusthum and I.V Murali Krishna, “Multi Resolution Analysis of Spatial Databases and its Application to Efficient Interpretation of Remotely Sensed Imagery”, International Journal of Remote Sensing and GIS, Vol 1, Issue 3, October 2012, pp.154-165, ISSN 2277–9051.
Md Ateeq ur Rahman, Shaik Rusthum and I.V Murali Krishna, “An Efficient Spatial Image Processing with Data Mining for Region Based Knowledge Extraction from Spatial Images”, International Journal of Advances in Remote Sensing and GIS, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 192 ISSN 2277 – 9450. 2012
Md Ateeq ur Rahman, Shaik Rusthum and I.V Murali Krishna, “Pattern Generation from Spatial Database for the Automated Interpretation of Remotely Sensed Imagery”, International Journal of Remote Sensing & Geoscience, ISSN: 2319-Vol 2, Issue 5, September 2013
Valli Manickam, Iyyanki V Muralikrishna and K Shanti Sree "Impact of Meteorological Parameters on the Economic Well-being in East Godavari and Vishakapatnam Districts of Andhra Pradesh, India - EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH, VOL. I, ISSUE 4/ JULY 2013 ISSN 2286-4822
B. Naga Jyothi,. G.R.Babu and .I.V.Murali Krishna, “Color Image Segmentation Using Clustering Techniques ” , International Journal of Computer, Electronics & Electrical Engineering, Vol. 2(1), pp. 44-47, March 2012 (ISSN: 2249 – 9997)
B. Naga Jyothi, G. R. Babu, I.V.Murali Krishna , “Thematic Classification of Multispectral Imagery”, International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering, Vol. 1(2) , pp.181-190, March 2012 (ISSN-2277-1956)
B. Naga Jyothi, K. S. R. Radhika, I. V. Murali Krishna , “Supervised Classification of Multispectral Image & Accuracy Assessment”, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, Vol.1 (9), pp.1-6, November-2012, (ISSN: 2278-0181)
B. Naga Jyothi, K. S. R. Radhika , I. V. Murali Krishna, “Image Analysis based on spectral and spatial Grouping”, International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management, Vol. 2(3), pp.486- 490, March 2013, (ISSN 2319 – 4847)
D Sridhar and IV Muralikrishna "Face recognition using Techebichef Moments" International Journal of Information and Network Security[IJINS) Vol-1, No 4, October 2012, pp 243-254. ISSN 2089-3299
Valli Manickam, Iyyanki V. Murali Krishna, Sree K. Shanti, R. Radhika Biomass Calculations for Carbon Sequestration in Forest Ecosystem Case study of Andhra Pradesh, India Journal of Energy and Chemical Engineering Jan 2014, Vol. 2 Issue. 1, PP. 30-38
List incomplete ---
 
PUBLICATIONS IN CONFERENCES IN INDIA AND ABROAD:
Muralikrishna I V- Digital enhancement of satellite data as applied to Antarctica blue ice delineation- ACRS Conference – Dec 1986
Muralikrishna I V- Power spectral analysis for texture classification. International Conference on Wave Dynamics, New Orleans, USA, 1991
Muralikrishna I V-Remote Sensing for May 90 Cyclone damage Assessment- International Journal of Remote Sensing 1993, Edited by AP Cracknell
Muralikrishna, I V and Raman H- Velocity Measurement using strain guage techniques- Proceedings International Symposium on New Orleans, USA, pp 817-835. 1973
Muralikrishna, I V and Sarma KVN- Effects of Reynolds number on the spread of mixing of buoyant jets-Sixth Australian Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics, Adelaide, Australia, December 1977.
Muralikrishna,I V- Landsat applications to study of coastal processes XXIICOSPAR symposium, Bangalore,June 1979.
Muralikrishna,I V and Doerffer R- Thermal Infrared measurement of sea surface temperature, ERIM Remote Sensing Conference held at San Jose, Costa Rica, April 1980.
Muralikrishna,I V-Removal of atmospheric contribution due to scan angle, Conference on Remote Sensing and the atmosphere organized by Remote Sensing Society at Liverpool December 1982.
Muralikrishna,I V-Remote sensing applications to ocean studies, Indo_USSR Seminar, Bangalore, February 1983.
Muralikrishna,I V- Estimation of influence of atmosphere during low altitude remote sensing of oceans, International Colloquium on Spectral signature of objects in Remote Sensing Bordeaux, France, September 1983.
Muralikrishna,I V- Study of large scale tidal vortices from Landsat data- ISPRS Congress at Brazil, June 1984.
Muralikrishna, I V- Ocean chlorophyll retrieval algorithms- XV COSPAR meeting, Graz, Ausrtia, June 1986
Muralikrishna,I V- Albedo slicing from meteorological satellite data- XV COSPAR meeting, Graz, Austria. June 1986
Muralikrishna,I V- Optimal utilisation of GIS and Remote Sensing information-Third international conference on Geographical Information Systems Canada, March 1991.
Muralikrishna,I V- Knowledge based techniques in GIS- Third international conference on GIS, Canada, March 1991.
Muralikrishna,IV- Utility of proposed sensors for coastal engineering studies- XV COSPAR meeting at Graz, Austria. 1986
Muralikrishna, I V, G Gandhi, A Sreenivasa Rao and P Kesava Rao - Automated change detection and interfacing with map based information- International Space Year Conference on Remote Sensing and GIS, Hyderabad, February 1992.
M L Narasimham, I V Muralikrishna, Vazir Mohamad and VV Rao- Some studies on the estimation of physiographic factors for selected catchment in Vizag district of A.P. using Landsat TM imagery- International Space Year Conference on Remote Sensing and GIS, Hyderabad, February 1992
H K Anasuya Devi and I V Muralikrishna-Query language in interface for map data processing in GIS-A cadse study-International Space Year Conference on Remote Sensing GIS, Hyderabad, February 1992.
NSSR Murthy and I V Muralikrishna-Knowledge based expert system for image under standing and interpretation for Watershed management- International Space Year Conference on Remote Sensing and GIS, Hyderabad, February 1992.
P Kesava Rao and IV Muralikrishna-Morphology filters in image processing- International Space Year Conference on Remote Sensing and GIS, Hyderabad, February 1992.
A Sreenivasa Rao and I V Muralikrishna-Iterative filters in digital image processing-International Space Year Conference on Remote Sensing and GIS, Hyderabad, February 1992
I V Muralikrishna- Remote Sensing for numerical modeling of Radiative transfer processes- Pacific Ocean Remote Sensing Conference, Japan, 1992.
I V Murali Krishna- Forest Biomass estimation and Forest stratification-IGARSS- Sydney, July 2001
Kiranmai C, IV Muralikrishna, A Venugopala Reddy- Spatial data mining for Forest management- IGARSS05- IEEE Society conference - Korea, July 2005
IV Muralikrishna, C Kiranmai and A Venugopala Reddy - Spatial and collateral data mining for crime analysis – MAPMIDDLE EAST conference – 2005- Dubai- April 2005.
M Seetha, IV Muralikrishna and BL Deekshatulu- Image fusion and information extraction – IGARSS 05 – IEEE Society conference- Korea 2005
Malleswari B, IV Muralikrishna and K Lal Kishore - GPS Datum Conversion – International Conference on Cybernetics and informatics- Hyderabad - January 2005
IV Murali Krishna, Cloud Seeding Project for enhancement of Rainfall – Weather modification Association conference – San Francisco, USA 2007
IV Murali Krishna , Valli Manickam, James Maddirala, GIS for Vector borne diseases-International conference on Health and Environment – Jackson - Mississippi, USA 2007
Nagaratna P. Hegde.and IV Murali Krishna “Quality Control in Large Spatial Databases ... ICORG, Hyderabad 2006
IV Murali Krishna “ GIS for Battle field management” International conference on Battlefield management system – New Delhi, April 2008
IV Muralikrishna and Valli Manickam, Climate Changes and spatial information Technology, World Environmental Foundation, Palamur International convention, May 2008
IV Muralikrishna, “ Spatial Epidemiology and Disease mapping” eGovernance Conference, Aug 2010, India
Iyyanki V Murali Krishna, James Maddirala, Mario Azevedo, V Manickam “ Disease mapping” International Conference on Health and Environment, September 2010, Jackson, MS, USA
IV Murali Krishna “EOS for Climate change” Data Democracy Workshop, GISTDA, Bangkok, June 2010.
Muralikrishna Iyyanki; Geospatial Technology for disaster management, Sri Lanka, Nov 2012.
Muralikrishna Iyyanki : Spatial epidemiology - Health GIS Bangkok 2013
 
TALKS / LECTURES DELIVERED IN INDIA / ABROAD
Institutions where Lectures Delivered :
University of Dundee, Scotland, UK
Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Havana, Cuba
GKSS Research centre, Geesthacht, Germany etc.
DLR Research Centre – Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
University of Liege – Liege – Belgium
MS University, Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat
Chiba University – Chiba, Japan
NASDA – Tokyo, Japan
Maulana Azad College of Technology, Bhopal,
University of Towson- Maryland, USA
Jackson state University – Mississippi, USA
GITAM University - Hyderabad
Administrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad
Asian institute of Technology, Bangkok
Engineering Staff College of India
AP Pollution Control Board
UP Council Science and Technology, Lucknow, UP
AP Forest Department
Institution of Engineers (INDIA)
MCR HRD Institute –Government of AP
AP Academy of Sciences.
National Institute of Hydrology – Kakinada,
Tamil Nadu Planning Board
Mangalore University, Mangalore
National Institute of Rural development, Hyderabad
Central institute of Rural Electrification (CIRE) Hyderabad
Central Research Institute of Dry land Agriculture (CRIDA) Hyderabad
Annamalai University, Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu
JNT University, Kakinada /JNT University- Anantapur
Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology [ISRO] Trivandrum
School of Planning and Architecture, MHRD, Government of India, Vijayawada
Krishna University PG Centre, Nuzivedu, AP
Indian National Cartographic association (INCA)
 
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ENGINEERING CHALLENGES IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF
TECHNOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE AND KNOWLEDGE
ECONOMY
 
Iyyanki V Muralikrishna
                                                                                 Ph D [IISc-Bangalore] FIE FIS FAPAS
Dr Raja Ramanna Distinguished Fellow, RCI/DRDO, Hyderabad
 
PRIMER
Engineers have a prominent role in the knowledge economy. Technology change in terms of technological convergence and knowledge management is a major engineering challenge. Innovation of new products and processes form the core of new knowledge.

The theme chosen for Engineer’s Day 2015 merriments “Engineering challenges for Knowledge Era” is projected to address these facets of technology. Tremendous developments are taking place in science, technology and engineering world over and the knowledge has become the innovative trade of national economics. Engineers have a pre-­- eminent role in the knowledge economy.

As such promoting R and D, nurturing entrepreneurship and succeeding in framing world-­- class merchandises, form major accomplishments in this regard. Further, interdisciplinary team efforts are needed to succeed in planning the benefits of knowledge economy. Technology provides the tools to help the engineers and the organization to develop and apply its knowledge capital. Arthur Andersen's Michael Stone explains it this way:

Technology allows people to collect, find, filter and distribute information far more rapidly than ever before. It is now possible to move large volumes of information quickly, and institutionalize what has always been an earlier informal and haphazard process.
 
CHANGING TECHNOLOGIES CONTEXT
Changing technologies and path breaking technological developments will have to be subjugated in all engineering disciplines. Technological change, as given in the Wikipedia, is the overall process of invention, innovation and diffusion of technology or processes. The technological change is the outcome of the engineering challenges consisting of a set of missions viz., invention, improvement and diffusion of technologies. These missions could further be explicated on the lines of content given in Wikipedia as follows
 
Invention of technologies (including processes) and their commercialization via research and development (producing emerging technologies),
Continual improvement of technologies (in which they often become less expensive),
Diffusion of technologies throughout industry or society.
 
In short, technological change is perceived currently as an inevitable outcome and noticeable rejoinder for engineering challenges, which is centered around convergence of both superior and supplementary technologies.
 
TECHNOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE
Technological convergence is the tendency that as technology changes, different technological systems sometimes evolve toward performing similar tasks. For example the Digital convergence refers to the convergence of four diligences into one business, information technologies, telecommunication, consumer electronics and entertainment. Previously separate technologies such as voice (telephone), data, and video can now share resources and intermingle with each other synergistically. This is a unique example of technological convergence in other words an output requiring the engineering challenges. Specifically this involves the converging of previously distinct media such as telephone and data comunications into common interfaces on single devices, such as most smart phones which can make phone calls and search the web.
 
MOORE'S LAW
The technological convergence is one way or other manyntimes an unexpected off-shoot of technology forecast. Here it is worth quoting the Moor's law for better appreciating the concept of technological convergence visa vis engineering challenges. Gordon E. Moore, who was working as the director of research and development (R&D) at Fairchild Semiconductor, was asked to predict what was going to happen in the semiconductor components industry over the next ten years. His response was a brief article entitled, "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits" in the thirty-fifth anniversary issue of Electronics magazine, which was published on April 19, 1965. Dr Moore speculated that by 1975 it would be possible to contain as many as 65,000 components on a single quarter-inch semiconductor. His reasoning was a log-linear relationship between device complexity (higher circuit density at reduced cost) and time. At the 1975 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting Moore revised the forecast rate Semiconductor complexity would continue to double annually until about 1980 after which it would decrease to a rate of doubling approximately every two years. He outlined several contributing factors for this exponential behavior .Simultaneous evolution to finer minimum dimensions and what Moore called "circuit and device cleverness"
 
Shortly after 1975, this was popularized as "Moore's law" stating that integrated circuits would double in performance every 18 months. Predictions of similar increases in computer power had existed years prior to this. It is reported that Intel offered US$ 10,000 some time during 2005, to purchase a copy of the original Electronics issue in which Moore's article appeared. Although Moore's law initially was made in the form of an observation and forecast the more widely it became accepted, the more it served as a goal for the industry. This drove both marketing and engineering departments of semiconductor manufacturers to focus enormous energy aiming for the specified increase in processing power that it was presumed one or more of their competitors would soon attain. In this regard, it may be viewed as a self-fulfilling prophecy.
 
PROBLEM BASED LEARNING [PBL]
While talking about knowledge prophecy the issues for acquiring knowledge are equally important and there are specific instances where problem based learning yielded significant results. This process could help to meet the engineers capable of meeting current challenges in a more effective manner. In problem solving, arriving at decisions based on prior knowledge and reasoning is important while in problem based learning, the process of acquiring new knowledge based on recognition of a need to learn is important. In problem based learning, small groups of engineers are presented with contextual situations and asked to define the problem, decide what skills and resources are necessary to investigate the problem and then pose possible solutions. PBL starts with the problems rather than with exposition of disciplinary knowledge. Students acquire knowledge skills and understanding through a staged sequence of problems presented in sequence. However, not all studies have found in favour of problem based learning.
 
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
People are investing in systems to capture, organize, and disseminate information, and then call it knowledge. But knowledge, by definition, cannot be converted into an object and given from one person to another without established flowing mechansims. Much of the confusion and disappointment concerning knowledge management stems from confusion between information and knowledge since not even KM experts link knowledge to action. There is no clarity. Knowledge only diffuses when there are learning processesThere is a discussion going on at the moment on Linked-­-In, about the definition of knowledge, with several people arguing that a definition of knowledge is fundamental to knowledge management. Here reproduce the quoted example of a map of mineral data, which is to be used to site a gold mine:

Each point on the map is a datum - a mineral sample point, with a location in space. The map itself is information; built up from the data points in such a way that it shows patterns which can be interpreted by a trained geologist. However, to interpret that map needs knowledge. Every one other than a geologist could not interpret it - The knowledge - the know-how, acquired through training and through experience- allows a mining geologist to interpret the map and come to a decision - to site a goldmine, to take more samples, or to declare the area worthless.

In this example, the data, the information and the knowledge come together to form a decision, but the ignorant person, the person with no knowledge, could never make that correct decision. As such the importance of knowledge management arises here and it is to be perceived as a successor to reengineering.
 
Knowledge
Theoretical
Clinical
Skills
Scientific reasoning
Critical appraisal,
Information literacy
Self directed, lifelong learning.
Attitudes
value of teamwork
interpersonal skills
the importance of psycho-social issue
 
Currently, no universally accepted definition of knowledge management exists, but there are some basic concepts to be explored, and considered. Simply put, knowledge management undertakes to identify what is in essence a human asset buried in the minds and hard drives of engineers working in an organization. Knowledge management also requires a system that will allow the creation of new knowledge, a dissemination system that will reach every engineer, with the ability to package knowledge as value-added in products, services and systems. However, knowledge management goes far beyond the storage and manipulation of data, or even of information. There are two kinds of knowledge: tacit, which is hard to articulate, versus explicit knowledge, which can be expressed in words and numbers and can be easily communicated and shared in hard form, as scientific formulas, codified procedures, or universal principles. Tacit or unarticulated knowledge is more personal, experiential, context specific, and hard to formalize. This kind of knowledge is difficult to communicate or share with others, and is generally inside the heads of individuals and teams. Since knowledge may be an organization's only sustainable competitive advantage, it is very important to capture tacit knowledge and transfer it. It is the engieering challenge
 
THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY
Knowledge is considered as discussed in various artciles as available in cyberspace as intangible, dynamic, and difficult to measure, but without it no developmental engineering institution can sustain. In fact, flows of knowledge is an indicator of institution's capacity to learn. The knowledge economy generally could be considered as different from the customary economy in several key respects: the economics is not of scarcity, but rather of abundance, and unlike most resources that deplete when used, information and knowledge can be distributed, and actually grows through such synergy.

Indian space program and misssile programs are the best examples of knowledge economy through large scale pooling of knowledge grid through deployment of principles of knowledge mangement. Knowledge principles in which recognized attention is paid to what some researchers called the "knowledge grid." It is defined to contain four categories identified as follows:
 
what we know we know;
what we know we don't know;
what we don't know we know;
what we don't know we don't know."
 
It is quite posssible that these 4 become the major challeges that need to be addressed for meeting the challenges. In other words reuse of knowledge saves work, reduces communication costs, and allows a enginners to take on more challenges, then knowledge management is in place.
 
NSF's GRAND ENGINEERING CHALLENGES FOR 21st CENTURY
The US National Science Foundation announced about 3 years back 14 grand engineering challenges for the 21st century that, if met, would greatly improve how we live. But that's not all, it wants every one to rank them. The final choices fall into four themes that are essential for humanity to flourish, - sustainability, health, reducing vulnerability and joy of living, the group said. Visitors to grand challenge site () have been voting on what they think are the greatest challenges. Tens of thousands of people voted. The results of that poll in he order of importance are reproduced below
 
Make solar energy economical
Provide energy from fusion
Provide access to clean water
Reverse-engineering
Advance personalized learning
Develop carbon sequestration methods
Restore and improve urban infrastructure
Engineer the tools of scientific discovery
Advance health informatics
Prevent nuclear terror
Engineer better medicines
Manage the nitrogen cycle
Enhance virtual reality
Secure cyberspace
 
INNOVATION
A big idea comes along at just the moment when the technology exits to implement it. Many times innovation is a matter of timing. In other words most of the innovations are accidental. The observation of objects and phenomenon happening around lead to development of some of the very crucial technologies for example- steam engine, penicillin etc., There were few exceptions which had lot of lead time from the time of concept to the development of technologies. For example the idea of sending a man to the moon was proposed right when the progress of microchips made it possible to put computer guidance systems into the nose cone of a rocket. Charles Babbage published his paper about a sophisticated computer in 1837, but it took a hundred years to achieve the scores of technological advances needed. It took several decades for acceptance of Radio by public in USA. Same is case of computer. But internet and mobile phones penetrated very fast into the social fabric as pat of tools of knowledge economy. That mean invention based on current technologies for current requirements innovation helps in meeting the engineering challenges as well as knowledge economy. Currently, the goal is to see intelligent people using innovation to create knowledge out of information.
 
CONCLUSION
Technological infrastructure that can link people enterprise-wide, support collaboration, and allow people in the organization to access all global resources.

Information technology is most effective when it converts the tacit knowledge of an individual into explicit knowledge that is then accessible by all.

Engineers must think through their technological systems to ensure they have the capabilities needed for the 21st century because technology such as Intranets and advanced collaborative software have made knowledge management and knowledge economy possible.

Competitive success will be based less on how strategically physical and financial resources are allocated, and more on how strategically intellectual capital is managed-from capturing, coding and disseminating information, to acquiring new competencies through training and development, and to re-engineering engineering processes. In view of these trends, and recognizing that knowledge has great potential value, engineering challenges require the professional to embark on comprehensive knowledge management programs.

The move to a knowledge or information-based econmy, there is requirement of a top-notch knowledge management system to secure a competitive edge and a capacity for learning..
 
References and Related Papers:
This article is preapred by freely quting some of the observations as mentioned by several business and technology knowledge management experts /authors on web. Some of the illustrative and related papers are given below for reference on the following topics which can be searched on google web.

Science and Technology Foresight Web Conference Geostrategics Synthesis Report Scenario Planning, Science and Technology, National Research and Societal Considerations What Does a Chief Knowledge Officer Do?

Acknowledgement; I thank the Chairman and Executive members of the Institution of Engineers AP State Centre for inviting me to deliver a talk on the theme of the Engineer's day celebration 2015. I deem it to be a privilege to participate in this event.
 
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GEOSPATIAL GOVERNANCE IN PUBLIC HEALTH and
HEALTH CARE EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT.
INDIAN NATIONAL PROJECT
 
Dr Iyyanki V Muralikrishna
Dr Raja Ramanna Distinguished Fellow
January  2015
 
EXECUTIVE  SUMMARY
 
KEYWORDS
G Governance, Spatial statistics, geospatial analysis, health care, GIS applications, Remote sensing, health data, emergency management, disease mapping, hot spots, disease outbreaks, hospital services, GPS, Environment, Climate change
 
G GOVERNANCE and GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY
G Governance (Geospatial Governance) can possibly be viewed or defined as the utilization of geospatial technology to facilitate decision makers taking spatially enabled and knowledgeable decisions. Good governance delivers superior services across all areas of government. E-governance is a well-liked expression at present and involves utilization of tools of technology to transformation of government services and work. Increasingly, geospatial technology is found to have scope for facilitating many tasks of governance, from facilities management to land records to natural resources and disaster management. With increased use of geospatial technology, governance processes are bound to grow from e-governance to g-governance. Geospatial technology essentially provides a framework for integrated problem solving. It enables us to understand problems better because it presents issues spatially, in a more comprehensible manner. Geospatial technology finds applications in advocacy, natural resources management, infrastructure management, environment, risk assessment, hazard mapping, disaster management etc.. As such, getting Geospatial thematic/attribute layers and their integration is the key for creation of G Governance services in any specified sector, for example, health, natural resources, climate change or disaster management etc.,

Geographic Information System (GIS) is a set of hardware and software tools for the input, storage, management, display and analysis of  geographic and spatial data using any information that can be linked to a geographic location such as events, people, or environmental characteristics. The movement to G-Governance calls for provisioning geospatial layers to related programs such as the National Spatial Data Infrastructure, state SDIs and the National e-Governance Program.

 
HEALTH CARE AND DISEASE MAPPING
Health being a geographic issue and related to geospatial analyses finds many solutions in geospatial technology and epidemiology. Geospatial epidemiology is defined as “the description and analysis of geographic variations in disease with respect to demographic, environmental, behavioral, socioeconomic, genetic, and infectious risk factors”. It is increasingly being used in many studies by combining the methods of epidemiology, statistics and geospatial technology. Many environmental conditions affect people's health. For example, the distribution of wetlands may affect the dispersion of malaria, while groundwater aquifer and the location of solid or hazardous waste dumping sites may impact the drinking water quality, which in turn affect the resident's health. The focus of health care system is the patient. GISs are applicable to the care of patients with both infectious and chronic diseases. GIS also can help in identifying disparities in treatment access and outcomes. Because geographic areas are often homogeneous by race, ethinicity, language, or economic status, looking at spatial patterns of disease or other health out comes and relating them to demographic patterns may uncover healthcare disparities. Geospatial analytic techniques, such as proximity estimations and cluster analysis, are built on statistical methods that incorporate distance and direction measurements to generate geospatially accurate maps and graphic reports. Disease clustering can be classified as temporal clustering, spatial clustering or space time clustering. SaTScan software is very useful software that can perform geographical surveillance of a disease, detect clusters and test whether these clusters are statistically significant or not.
 
LOCATION BASED HAZARD VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT AND HEALTH CARE EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT.
Identifying risks from hazards and assessing a hospital or healthcare facility’s vulnerabilities to these risks is fundamentally about having right information and in many cases geospatial information. Ideally speaking it is imperative to have all hazards vulnerability assessment for a given area and the scope for application of geospatial technology to it is unlimited both in terms of extent of spatial and thematic coverage as well as cost effectiveness. The hospitals are first respondents in a disaster; it is in the interest of effective response for hospitals to participate in activities related to disaster management.

Use of disaster modeling software in the GIS predicts what geographic areas are vulnerable in an incident like the release of hazardous plume. Hazard vulnerability assessment is the process that identifies the internal and external risks of all hazards (natural, technological, human caused and hazardous materials related) most likely to affect facilities and the possibility of severity of impacts on response and recovery if they were to occur. By understanding the risk exposures, it should be possible for Government and other private/public organizations to develop adequate mitigation, preparedness and response and recovery actions for those risks, thus reducing the vulnerability and impact from several angles. All hospitals must also conduct hazard vulnerability assessment and in future it is likely to be accreditation requirement by Government {Hospital Accreditation Program}. This enables hospitals to identify potential emergencies that could affect demand for the hospital’s services or its ability to provide those services, the likelihood of those events occurring and consequences of those events. An advantage of application of geospatial technology in such assessments provides the scope to create “what if” scenarios for facilitating effective mitigation measures.
 
FACILITIES PLANNING
Many health related institutions globally have been appreciated for the innovative and wide-ranging uses of Geographic Information Systems (GISs) to address problems in health including facilities planning. Spatial decision analysis tools are useful to hospital administrators and clinical program designers to decide where to build new facilities, locate intervention programs, or allocate resources. Various criteria can be considered and combined using multiple criteria. The result is a ranking of geographic areas according to their suitability for the desired usage. Different criteria can be weighted for their importance in the decision-making process. The selection and weighting of criteria can be varied to see the impact on the suitability ranking. Geospatial analysis is a key component in the effective use of GISs in health care for data exploration, hypothesis testing, and modeling. This interactive process can test and model different scenarios and combinations of factors, using different weights for factors.
 
SPATIAL INTEROPERABILITY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH
Decision support in health care delivery and emergency public health response has gained incredible importance during the last decade for various reasons. Disease outbreaks like dengue fever have certainly exposed the flaws in the ability of public health, animal control, emergency response and health care delivery units to share critical data resources in a timely and efficient manner. Most health data collected from the existing sources does not pertain to certain common norms, formats and lack reliable geographic representation. As such the interoperability is an issue for taking it forward. The desired outcome of the interoperability is to create a standard frame of reference that facilitates decision making and cooperation and timely interventions in the event of any crisis. Success with the use of GIS is dependent on the availability of geospatial data which refers to data that includes geographic elements, such as latitude and longitude, as well as accurate information in the form of metadata elements. Georeferenced data is collected by use of Global Positioning System (GPS) device or by geocoding a given thematic or any other type maps, a process by which an address is assigned geographic coordinates. In general, coordinates derived from GPS devices are more accurate, but geocoding technology is quickly catching up and represents a very cost-effective way to enable legacy data for use in GIS. In addition to system level interoperability, situation demands the data level exchanges and geospatial analysis should be possible.
 
Conclusion
Advanced research in Geospatial Public Health and geospatial epidemiology is expected to play a pivotal role in disease mapping, developing community health surveillance, health care networks, managing health resources, population density, socio‐demographics, health & human services etc.  It is expected that the project would achieve breakthrough, through development and validation of operational public Health GIS models, publication of research results, formulating the road map for future developments in healthcare GIS. It would also help in better decision making in public health sector in terms of identification of challenges in implementation, learning’s from implementers and stakeholders and emerging developments.  It is further envisaged that the integration of Geospatial analysis and modeling would strengthen the Health Management Information Systems. It would promote Socio‐economic, demographic, environmental overlay which would facilitate in Epidemiological Analysis, Managing Health and Human Services in the best possible manner. The following could be the broad outcomes of the national project.
 
Methods  for disease and Risk mapping
Spatial patterns of diseases
Hotspot detection of diseases
Spatial diffusion of disease outbreak
Road map for Spatial Epidemiological Model
Geospatial analysis and visualization
Healthcare emergency management
Geospatial Interoperability
Location based hazard vulnerability assessment
Web services and building portals
 
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IGRSM Talk 2015/1
 
Coorganised with
 
Geospatial
 
Dewan Seminar, 2nd Floor, Administration Block, Faculty of
Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang, Selangor
28 September 2015 (Monday), 3.00 - 5.00 pm
Image Fusion: Issues and Research Trends with Reference to Hyperspectral and Multispectral Remote Sensing Images
 
Prof. Dr. Muralikrishna V Iyyanki
Dr Raja Ramanna Distinguished Fellow
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
 
Abstract
 
Remote sensing sensors provide data covering different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum at different spatial and spectral resolutions. Spatial resolution represents the smallest resolvable area (e.g., pixel), while spectral resolution corresponds to the smallest wavelength that can be detected in the spectral measurement. High spatial resolution multispectral sensors, such as LISS IV, QuickBird, World View -2 and Geo Eye, provide data at high to very high spatial resolution but with limited spectral resolution. Presently available data from hyperspectral sensors, such as Hyperion, AVIRIS and CHRIS, have medium spatial resolution (ranging between 17-30 m) with rich spectral information. Both these high resolution multispectral and hyperspectral sensors have their own importance in identification and delineation of features. Although airborne hyperspectral sensors can give these kinds of high spatio-spectral images, they are very expensive and are not affordable by everyone. Hence, a fusion of hyperspectral and high spatial resolution multispectral images can increase interpretation capabilities and assist in improved target detection.

Image fusion can be defined as the process of dealing with data and information from multiple sources to achieve refined/improved information for decision making.  Many studies that have been conducted based on the fusion of multispectral and panchromatic data have highlighted the advantages and importance of fusion. However, while these multispectral and panchromatic fusions can improve the qualities of the output images in the spatial context, they cannot improve the spectral properties of the fused output. The fusion of hyperspectral images with high resolution multispectral images may result in an image with high spectral and spatial resolution, in which the qualities of both of the input images can be preserved. Thus, the former can support better delineation of features spectrally, while the latter can help in identification of features spatially.

Image fusion can be defined as the process of dealing with data and information from multiple sources to achieve refined/improved information for decision making.  Many studies that have been conducted based on the fusion of multispectral and panchromatic data have highlighted the advantages and importance of fusion. However, while these multispectral and panchromatic fusions can improve the qualities of the output images in the spatial context, they cannot improve the spectral properties of the fused output. The fusion of hyperspectral images with high resolution multispectral images may result in an image with high spectral and spatial resolution, in which the qualities of both of the input images can be preserved. Thus, the former can support better delineation of features spectrally, while the latter can help in identification of features spatially.

 
Biograpy
Prof. Dr. Muralikrishna V Iyyanki received the M.Tech and PhD degrees from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Madras and Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Banglore respectively. He served as assistant professor in IIT Madras (1976-1979), senior scientist and Head of the Marine Applications Division, National Remote Sensing Agency, Indian Space Research Organisation (1979-1987), Professor and Founder Head of the Centre for Spatial Information Technology (CSIT) at Jawaharlal Nehru Technological (JNT) University (1990-2008), and Director of JNT University's Research and Development Centre (2005-2008). In addition, he has served as a guest scientist at Germany's German Space Research Institute (DLR) and GKSS Research Centre, and as visiting/adjunct/consulting professor at several institutes around the world, including Administrative Staff College of India, Bharatidasan University, Asian Institute of Technology, Jackson State University and Chiba University. He is a Fellow of various respected organisations, including Institute of Engineers, Institute of Surveyors, International Congress for Disaster Management, AP Academy of Sciences, Indian Geophysical Union and Bhoovigyan Vikas Foundation. He has published more than 50 papers in peer reviewed journals, and about 80 papers in national and international conferences, as well as guiding/co-guiding 26 PhD and 152 Master students.

At present, he is a Dr Raja Ramanna Distinguished Fellow at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), India, and the National Coordinator for Geospatial Public Health, which is a National Networking Government of India Project. He is also an expert member in several national committees on disaster management, natural resources management, national policies on open data and geospatial technologies, and governing councils of academic institutions. His present research focuses are on hyperspectral remote sensing image classification and geospatial public health management system.
 
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Image Fusion - Issues and Research Trends
with reference to Hyperspectral and
Multispectral Remote sensing images
 
Summary of the Invited talk to be delivered by
Dr Muralikrishna Iyyanki on
September 28th, 2015 at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
 
Remote sensing sensors provide data covering different regions of the electro-magnetic spectrum at different spatial and spectral resolutions, where the spatial resolution represents the smallest resolvable area (e.g. pixel) and the spectral resolution corresponds to the smallest wavelength that can be detected in the spectral measurement. The high spatial resolution multispectral sensors like LISS IV, QuickBird, World View -2, Geo eye etc provide data at high to very high spatial resolution but with a limited spectral resolution. The presently available data from hyperspectral sensors (like Hyperion, AVIRIS, CHRIS) have a medium spatial resolution (ranging between 17m – 30m) with rich spectral information. Both these high resolution multispectral and hyperspectral sensors have their own importance in identification and in delineation of the features. Although airborne hyperspectral sensors can give these kinds of high spatio spectral images, these are very expensive and are not affordable by everyone.

Hence a fusion of the hyperspectral and high spatial resolution multispectral images may allow increased interpretation capabilities and can assist in improved target detection. Image fusion can be defined as the process of  dealing with data and information from multiple sources to achieve refined/improved information for decision making.  Many studies were made based on the fusion of multispectral and the panchromatic data that have highlighted the advantages and the importance of fusion. However these multispectral and panchromatic fusions can improve the qualities of the output image in the spatial context, but cannot improve the spectral properties of the fused output  The fusion of hyperspectral images with high resolution multispectral images may result in an image with high spectral and spatial resolution in which the qualities of both of the input images could be preserved. Thus, the former can support better delineation of features spectrally while the later can help in identification of features spatially.

There are various image fusion techniques available which can be used for fusing multispectral and panchromatic datasets like simple averaging, Principal Component (PC) sharpening, Brovey transform, Gram Schmidt fusion, Color Normalized technique, ehler’s fusion, wavelet based fusion, High Pass Filtering (HPF) method etc., each technique having its own advantages and limitations. Hyperspectral images consist of hundreds of contiguous bands with very narrow bandwidth and high spectral information. This quality aids in identification of materials of the objects on the ground unlike the multispectral datasets which can identify the patterns and coverage of the objects. However inspite of its high spectral resolution, its moderate spatial resolution induces many mixed pixels in the image that leads to misclassifications in the classified mapNot all algorithms that are used for multispectral datasets are suitable for fusing the hyperspectral data with multispectral data. Only some of the transformation based algorithms like Intensity Hue Saturation (IHS), Wavelet decomposition, Neural Networks, Knowledge-based image fusion, Gram Schmidt (GS) technique, Color Normalized Transform (CNT) etc. can help in fusing the hyperspectral and multi spectral datasets. The normal multispectral classifiers are not suitable for classifying the hyperspectral images due to their high volume and data redundancy. Various improved classification techniques like spectral angle mapper, artificial neural networks, spectral unmixing, support vector machine etc were developed for classifying the hyperspectral images.

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GOVERNMENT OF ANDHRA PRADESH
and  The Institution of Engineers (India) Andhra Pradesh State Centre Present
ENGINEER OF THE YEAR AWARD -2008  To
Professor Iyyanki.V. Muralikrishna  PhD FIE FIS
C I T A T I O N
Professor I V Murali Krishna, Fellow of Institute of Engineers since 1982  with a PhD from Indian Institute of Science  at Bangalore and M Tech from Indian Institute of Technology at Chennai is presently working as Director, Institute of Science and Technology and Coordinator of Centre for Atmospheric Sciences and Weather Modification Technologies at Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University-Hyderabad.  Started career as Lecturer in Ocean Engineering centre at IIT Chennai in 1977 and joined National Remote sensing Agency at Hyderabad as Scientist (Oceanography) in 1979 and was head of Marine Applications Division at NRSA from 1982 onwards. He conducted the First aerial chlorophyll scanning experiment in Araban Sea in 1981. Dr Murali Krishna was a Guest Scientist at German Space Research Centre, Oberpfaffenhofen Germany and participated in MARSEN experiment at GKSS Centre at Geesthacht Germany during 1979.He was Visiting Professor at Chiba University, Chiba, Japan during the year 2000. He established Centre for Spatial Information Technology at JNTU and Was Professor and Head of the centre for 15 years up to 2005. He was the Director (Research and Development) 2005-2007 at JNTU. From the year 2006 onwards he was Coordinator and developed Centre for Atmospheric Sciences and Weather Modification Technologies at JNT University. He Initiated and implemented MOUs with i) Survey of India in 1992 ii) Chiba University - Japan, 2000 iii) Electronics Corporation of India, for advancement of research and education in the area of  Disaster Management, Spatial Information Technology and Weather informatics. Prof IV Murali Krishna organized Workshops, Conferences and Conceived and implemented ICORG series – and Organized Five International Conferences during 1992,94,97,2001, 06 and 08 and Several Workshops and Training programs. He Organized International Workshop on Weather Modification Technologies – Hyderabad in  2007. Recipient of Best Teacher Award in 2005  from Government of Andhra Pradesh  Dr Murali Krishna, has contributed significantly as a Research Worker, Academician. Environmental Consultant, Administrator & Project Designer and implementer for various Environmental Impact Assessment  and Water resource Development projects in Andhra Pradesh. In recognition of his innovative and outstanding work in the field of Environmental and Civil Engineering, the Government of Andhra Pradesh and The Institution of Engineers (India), AP State Centre hereby present “ENGINEER OF THE YEAR AWARD – 2008” on the occasion of 41th Engineers’ Day Celebrations (in commemoration of 148th Birthday Celebrations of Bharat Ratna Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya) on Monday the 15th September 2008 to Dr. Iyyanki V Murali Krishna FIE and Professor and Director, Institute of Science and Technology, JNT University, Hyderabad..
Secretary, Dept of  Science and Technology, Govt of AP
Chairman,   Institution of Engineers APSC
 
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